- What is a Bibliography?
- A bibliography is a list of all of the sources you have used in the process of researching your work.
In general, a bibliography should include:
- the authors' names
- the titles of the works
- the names and locations of the companies that published your copies of the sources
- the dates your copies were published
- the page numbers of your sources (if they are part of multi-source volumes)
- OK, so what's an Annotated Bibliography?
- An annotated bibliography is the same as a bibliography with one important difference: in an annotated bibliography, the bibliographic information is followed by a brief description of the content, quality, and usefulness of the source.
- What are Footnotes?
- Footnotes are notes placed at the bottom of a page. They cite references or comment on a designated
part of the text above it. For example, say you want to add an interesting comment to a sentence you have written, but the
comment is not directly related to the argument of your paragraph. In this case, you could add the symbol for a footnote. Then,
at the bottom of the page, you could reprint the symbol and insert your comment. Here is an example:
This is an illustration of a footnote.1 The number "1" at the end of the previous sentence corresponds with the note below. See how it fits in the body of the text?
1At the bottom of the page you can insert your comments about the sentence preceding the footnote.
When your reader comes across the footnote in the main text of your paper, he or she could look down at your comments right away, or else continue reading the paragraph and read your comments at the end. Because this makes it convenient for your reader, most citation styles require that you use either footnotes or endnotes in your paper. Some, however, allow you to make parenthetical references (author, date) in the body of your work. See our section on citation styles for more information.
If you have already introduced the author and work from which you are citing, and you are obviously referring to the same work, you probably don't need to mention them again. However, if you have cited other sources and then go back to one you had cited earlier, it is a good idea to mention at least the author's name again (and the work if you have referred to more than one by this author) to avoid confusion.
Footnotes are not just for interesting comments, however. Sometimes they simply refer to relevant sources -- they let your reader know where certain material came from, or where they can look for other sources on the subject. To decide whether you should cite your sources in footnotes or in the body of your paper, you should ask your instructor or see our section on citation styles.
- Where does the little footnote mark go?
- Whenever possible, put the footnote at the end of a sentence, immediately following the period or whatever punctuation mark completes that sentence. Skip two spaces after the footnote before you begin the next sentence. If you must include the footnote in the middle of a sentence for the sake of clarity, or because the sentence has more than one footnote (try to avoid this!), try to put it at the end of the most relevant phrase, after a comma or other punctuation mark. Otherwise, put it right at the end of the most relevant word. If the footnote is not at the end of a sentence, skip only one space after it.
- What's the difference between Footnotes and Endnotes?
- The only real difference is placement -- footnotes appear at the bottom of the relevant page, while endnotes all appear at the end of your document. If you want our reader to read your notes right away, footnotes are more likely to get your reader's attention. Endnotes, on the other hand, are less intrusive and will not interrupt the flow of your paper.
- If I cite sources in the Footnotes (or Endnotes), how is that different from a Bibliography?
- Sometimes you may be asked to include these -- especially if you have used a parenthetical style of citation. A "works cited" page is a list of all the works from which you have borrowed material. Your reader may find this more convenient than footnotes or endnotes because he or she will not have to wade through all of the comments and other information in order to see the sources from which you drew your material. A "works consulted" page is a complement to a "works cited" page, listing all of the works you used, whether they were useful or not.
- Isn't a "works consulted" page the same as a "bibliography," then?
- Well, yes. The title is different because "works consulted" pages are meant to complement "works cited" pages, and bibliographies may list other relevant sources in addition to those mentioned in footnotes or endnotes. Choosing to title your bibliography "Works Consulted" or "Selected Bibliography" may help specify the relevance of the sources listed.
What did my professor mean when he asked for ...
Used with full permission of University of Albany and Carol Anne Germain. The University of Albany page is maintained by Carol Anne Germain at firstname.lastname@example.org
Copyright 2011 University at Albany. All rights reserved. Last updated October 2011. Terms updated with local data July 2012. (jmf)